Plotting Interactive plots with Plotly and Cufflinks

Plotting High Quality Plots in Python with Plotly and Clufflinks

Interactive Plot

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Introduction

Hello everyone, in this blog we are going to explore some of most used and simplest plots in the data analysis. If you have made your hand dirty playing with data then you might have come across at least anyone of these plots. And in Python, we have been doing these plots using Matplotlib. But above that, we have some tools like Seaborn (built on the top of Matplotlib) which gave use nice graphs. But those were not interactive plots. Plotly is all about interactivity!

This blog will be updated frequently.

  • January 28 2022, started blog writing.

Installation

This blog was prepared and run on the google colab and if you are trying to run codes in local computer, please install plotly first by pip install plotly. You can visit official link if you want. Then cufflinks by pip install cufflinks. Pandas DataFrame object has no attribute 'iplot' or we do not have interactive plot method in Pandas but using cufflinks, we could link them.

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
import warnings
from plotly.offline import init_notebook_mode, iplot
import plotly.figure_factory as ff
import cufflinks
import plotly.io as pio 
cufflinks.go_offline()
cufflinks.set_config_file(world_readable=True, theme='pearl')
pio.renderers.default = "colab" # should change by looking into pio.renderers

pd.options.display.max_columns = None
# pd.options.display.max_rows = None
pio.renderers
Renderers configuration
-----------------------
    Default renderer: 'colab'
    Available renderers:
        ['plotly_mimetype', 'jupyterlab', 'nteract', 'vscode',
         'notebook', 'notebook_connected', 'kaggle', 'azure', 'colab',
         'cocalc', 'databricks', 'json', 'png', 'jpeg', 'jpg', 'svg',
         'pdf', 'browser', 'firefox', 'chrome', 'chromium', 'iframe',
         'iframe_connected', 'sphinx_gallery', 'sphinx_gallery_png']

If you are running Plotly on colab then use pio.renderers.default = "colab" else choose according to your need.

Get Dataset

For the purpose of visualization, we are going to look into COVID 19 Dataset publicly available on GitHub.

Since the main goal of this blog is to explore visualization not the analysis part, we will be skipping most of analysis and focus only on the plots.

df = pd.read_csv("https://covid.ourworldindata.org/data/owid-covid-data.csv")
df["date"] = pd.to_datetime(df.date)
df

Data is not shown here to avoid huge page.

157476 rows × 67 columns

Check Missing Columns

First step of any data analysis is checking for missing columns.

total = df.isnull().sum().sort_values(ascending = False)
percent = (df.isnull().sum()/df.isnull().count()).sort_values(ascending = False)
mdf = pd.concat([total, percent], axis=1, keys=['Total', 'Percent'])
mdf = mdf.reset_index()
mdf
index Total Percent
0 weekly_icu_admissions 153085 0.972116
1 weekly_icu_admissions_per_million 153085 0.972116
2 excess_mortality_cumulative_per_million 152056 0.965582
3 excess_mortality 152056 0.965582
4 excess_mortality_cumulative_absolute 152056 0.965582
... ... ... ...
62 total_cases 2850 0.018098
63 population 1037 0.006585
64 date 0 0.000000
65 location 0 0.000000
66 iso_code 0 0.000000

67 rows × 3 columns

It seems that we have lots of missing data (97%+).

Pie Chart

Missing Values Columns

How about plotting the counts of missing columns in pie chart?

To make it more fast, we will be using only columns that are missing more than 100000 values.

mdf.query("Total>100000").iplot(kind='pie',labels = "index", 
                                values="Total", textinfo="percent+label",
                                title='Top Columns with Missing Values', hole = 0.5)

pie1

Above plot seems little bit dirty and we could smoothen it by not providing textinfo.

mdf.query("Total>100000").iplot(kind='pie',labels = "index", 
                                values="Total",
                                title='Top Columns with Missing Values', hole = 0.5)

pie2

Line Chart

New Cases Per day

The location field of our data seems to be having country name, continent name and world so we will skip those locations first. Then we will calculate the aggregated value of each day by grouping on date level

Lets first plot simple line chart with only total cases. But we could always plot more lines within it.

todf = df[~df.location.isin(["Lower middle income", "North America", "World", "Asia", "Europe", 
                           "European Union", "Upper middle income", 
                           "High income", "South America"])]
tdf = todf.groupby("date").aggregate(new_cases=("new_cases", "sum"),
                                   new_deaths = ("new_deaths", "sum"),
                                   new_vaccinations = ("new_vaccinations", "sum"),
                                   new_tests = ("new_tests", "sum")
                                   ).reset_index()

tdf.iplot(kind="line",
          y="new_cases",
          x="date",
          xTitle="Date",
          width=2,
          yTitle="new_cases", 
          title="New Cases from Jan 2020 to Jan 2022")

line1

Above plot seems to be cool but now lets plot multiple lines at the same time on same figure.

tdf.iplot(kind="line",
          y=["new_deaths", "new_vaccinations", "new_tests"],
          x="date",
          xTitle="Date",
          width=2,
          yTitle="Cases", 
          title="Cases from Jan 2020 to Jan 2022")

line2

It does not look that good because the new_deaths is not clearly visible lets draw them in sub plots so that we could see each lines distinctly.

tdf.iplot(kind="line",
          y=["new_deaths", "new_vaccinations", "new_tests"],
          x="date",
          xTitle="Date",
          width=2,
          yTitle="Cases", 
          subplots=True,
          title="Cases from Jan 2020 to Jan 2022")

line3

Now its better.

We could even plot secondary y variable. Now lets plot new tests and new vaccinations side by side.

tdf.iplot(kind="line",
          y=["new_vaccinations"],
          secondary_y = "new_tests",
          x="date",
          xTitle="Date",
          width=2,
          yTitle="new_vaccinations",
          secondary_y_title="new_tests", 
          title="Cases from Jan 2020 to Jan 2022")

line4

In above plot, we were able to insert two y axes.

Scatter Plot

New deaths vs New Cases

How about viewing the deaths vs cases in scatter plot?

tdf.iplot(kind="scatter",
              y="new_deaths", x='new_cases',
              mode='markers',
              yTitle="New Deaths", xTitle="New Cases",
              title="New Deaths vs New Cases")

scatter1

It seems that most of the deaths happened while cases were little.

We could even plot secondary y. Lets visualize new tests along with them.

tdf.iplot(kind="scatter",
              x="new_deaths", y='new_cases',
              secondary_y="new_tests",
              secondary_y_title="New Tests",
              mode='markers',
              xTitle="New Deaths", yTitle="New Cases",
              title="New Deaths vs New Cases")

scatter2

We could even use subplots on it.

tdf.iplot(kind="scatter",
              x="new_deaths", y='new_cases',
              secondary_y="new_tests",
              secondary_y_title="New Tests",
              mode='markers',
              subplots=True,
              xTitle="New Deaths", yTitle="New Cases",
              title="New Deaths vs New Cases")

scatter3

Bar Plot

How about plotting top 20 countries where most death have occured?

But first, take the aggregate data by taking maximum of total deaths column. Thanks to the author of this dataset we do not have to make our hands dirty much. Then take top 20 by using nlargest.

tdf = df[~df.location.isin(["Lower middle income", "North America", "World", "Asia", "Europe", 
                           "European Union", "Upper middle income", 
                           "High income", "South America"])].groupby("location").aggregate(total_deaths=("total_deaths", "max"),
                                                                                           total_cases = ("total_cases", "max"),
                                                                                           total_tests = ("total_tests", "max")).reset_index()
topdf = tdf.nlargest(20, "total_deaths")
topdf.iplot(kind="bar", x="location",
                                      y="total_deaths",
                                      theme="polar",
                                      xTitle="Countries", yTitle="Total Deaths", 
                                       title="Top 20 Countries according to total deaths")

bar1 It seems awesome. We could play with theme also.

We could even make it horizontal.

topdf.iplot(kind="bar", x="location",
            y="total_deaths",
            theme="polar", orientation='h',
            xTitle="Countries", yTitle="Total Deaths", 
            title="Top 20 Countries according to total deaths")

bar2

We could even plot multiple bars at the same time. In seaborn, we could do this by using Hue but here, we only have to pass it in y. Lets plot bars of total deaths, total cases and total tests.

topdf.iplot(kind="bar", x="location",
            y=["total_deaths", "total_cases", "total_tests"],
            theme="polar",
            xTitle="Countries", yTitle="Total Deaths", 
            title="Top 20 Countries according to total deaths")

bar3

But total deaths is not visible clearly, lets try to use different mode of bar. We could choose one from the 'stack', 'group', 'overlay', 'relative'.

topdf.iplot(kind="bar", x="location",
                        y=["total_deaths", "total_cases", "total_tests"],
                        theme="polar",
                        barmode="overlay",
                        xTitle="Countries", yTitle="Total Deaths", 
                        title="Top 20 Countries according to total deaths")

bar4

But it is still not clear. One solution is to plot in subplots.

topdf.iplot(kind="bar", x="location",
                        y=["total_deaths", "total_cases", "total_tests"],
                        theme="polar",
                        barmode="overlay",
                        xTitle="Countries", yTitle="Total Deaths", 
                        subplots=True,
                        title="Top 20 Countries according to total deaths")

bar5

Much better.

Histogram Chart

How about viewing the distribution of totel tests done?

tdf.iplot(kind="hist",
              bins=50, 
              colors=["red"],
              keys=["total_tests"],
              title="Total tests Histogram")

hist1

To see histogram of other columns in same figure we will use keys.

tdf.iplot(kind="hist",
              bins=100, 
              colors=["red"],
              keys=["total_tests", "total_cases", "total_deaths"],
              title="Multiple Histogram")

hist2

It does not look good as the data is not distributed properly. Lets visualize it in different plots.

tdf.iplot(kind="hist",
              subplots=True,
              keys=["total_tests", "total_cases", "total_deaths"],
              title="Multiple Histogram")

hist3

Box Plot

How about viewing outliers in data?

tdf.iplot(kind="box",
              keys=["total_tests", "total_cases", "total_deaths"], 
              boxpoints="outliers",
              x="location",
              xTitle="Columns", title="Box Plot Tests, Cases and Deaths")

box1

It is not clearly visible as the data have lot of outliers and not all columns have similar distributions.

tdf.iplot(kind="box",
              keys=["total_tests", "total_cases", "total_deaths"], 
              boxpoints="outliers",
              x="location",
              subplots=True,
              xTitle="Columns", title="Box Plot Tests, Cases and Deaths")

box2

HeatMaps

How about viewing the correlation between columns? We will not check with all the 67 columns but lets test with 3.

df[["new_cases", "new_deaths", "new_tests"]].corr().iplot(kind="heatmap")

corr1

Simple yet much informative and interactive right?

Choropleth on Map

Plotting on map was once mine dream but now it can be done within few clicks.

Lets plot a choropleth on world map for the total deaths as of the latest day

import plotly.graph_objects as go

ldf = df[~df.location.isin(["Lower middle income", "North America", "World", "Asia", "Europe", 
                           "European Union", "Upper middle income", 
                           "High income", "South America"])].drop_duplicates("location", keep="last") 

fig = go.Figure(data=go.Choropleth(
    locations = ldf['iso_code'],
    z = ldf['total_deaths'],
    text = ldf['location'],
    colorscale = 'Blues',
    autocolorscale=False,
    reversescale=True,
    marker_line_color='darkgray',
    marker_line_width=0.5,
    colorbar_title = 'total_deaths',
))

fig.update_layout(
    title_text='total_deaths vs Country',
    geo=dict(
        showframe=False,
        showcoastlines=False,
        projection_type='equirectangular'
    )
)

fig.show()

choro1

Above plot is of current date only but what if w want to view data of each available date?

Choropleth with Slider

We could add a slider to slide between different dates but it will be too much power hungry plot so beware of your system. We will plot total number of cases at the end of the month for each country.

tldf = df[~df.location.isin(["Lower middle income", "North America", "World", "Asia", "Europe", 
                           "European Union", "Upper middle income", 
                           "High income", "South America"])]
tldf = tldf.groupby(["location", "iso_code", pd.Grouper(key="date", freq="1M")]).aggregate(total_cases=("total_cases", "max")).reset_index()
tldf["date"] = tldf["date"].dt.date
tldf
location iso_code date total_cases
0 Afghanistan AFG 2020-02-29 5.0
1 Afghanistan AFG 2020-03-31 166.0
2 Afghanistan AFG 2020-04-30 1827.0
3 Afghanistan AFG 2020-05-31 15180.0
4 Afghanistan AFG 2020-06-30 31445.0
... ... ... ... ...
5101 Zimbabwe ZWE 2021-09-30 130820.0
5102 Zimbabwe ZWE 2021-10-31 132977.0
5103 Zimbabwe ZWE 2021-11-30 134625.0
5104 Zimbabwe ZWE 2021-12-31 213258.0
5105 Zimbabwe ZWE 2022-01-31 228943.0

5106 rows × 4 columns


first_day = tldf.date.min()

scl = [[0.0, '#ffffff'],[0.2, '#b4a8ce'],[0.4, '#8573a9'],
       [0.6, '#7159a3'],[0.8, '#5732a1'],[1.0, '#2c0579']] # purples

data_slider = []
for date in tldf['date'].unique():
    df_segmented =  tldf[(tldf['date']== date)]

    for col in df_segmented.columns:
        df_segmented[col] = df_segmented[col].astype(str)

    data_each_yr = dict(
                        type='choropleth',
                        locations = df_segmented['iso_code'],
                        z=df_segmented["total_cases"].astype(float),
                        colorbar= {'title':'Total Cases'}
                        )

    data_slider.append(data_each_yr)

steps = []
for i,date in enumerate(tldf.date.unique()):
    step = dict(method='restyle',
                args=['visible', [False] * len(data_slider)],
                label='Date {}'.format(date))
    step['args'][1][i] = True
    steps.append(step)

sliders = [dict(active=0, pad={"t": 1}, steps=steps)]

layout = dict(title ='Total Cases at the End of Month Across the World',
              sliders=sliders)

fig = dict(data=data_slider, layout=layout)
iplot(fig)

choro2

If I have to explain the above code, we have created a data for each of slider point and in our case a slider's single point is end of the month.

  • Loop through unique date.
    • Mask the data to get data of current date.
    • Make a dictionary by giving common and essential values required to make a chloropeth.
    • Give locations as iso_code.
    • Give z axis as total cases.
    • And use total cases on color bar title.
    • Add this data to slider.
  • For each date step, prepare a label.
  • Update sliders and layout then make figure and plot it using iplot.

Density Mapbox

Another useful plot is density map box where we will plot density plot on the map. But we need longitude and latitude for that. And I have prepared it in GitHub already. Please find it on below link:

country_df = pd.read_csv("https://github.com/q-viper/State-Location-Coordinates/raw/main/world_country.csv")
country_df = country_df[["country", "lon", "lat", "iso_con"]]
tldf["country"] = tldf.location
tldf = tldf.merge(country_df[["country", "lat", "lon"]], on="country")
tldf.head()
location iso_code date total_cases country lat_x lon_x lat_y lon_y
0 Afghanistan AFG 2020-02-29 5.0 Afghanistan 33.768006 66.238514 33.768006 66.238514
1 Afghanistan AFG 2020-03-31 166.0 Afghanistan 33.768006 66.238514 33.768006 66.238514
2 Afghanistan AFG 2020-04-30 1827.0 Afghanistan 33.768006 66.238514 33.768006 66.238514
3 Afghanistan AFG 2020-05-31 15180.0 Afghanistan 33.768006 66.238514 33.768006 66.238514
4 Afghanistan AFG 2020-06-30 31445.0 Afghanistan 33.768006 66.238514 33.768006 66.238514
import plotly.express as px

fig = px.density_mapbox(tldf.drop_duplicates(keep="last"), 
                          lat = tldf["lat"],
                          lon = tldf["lon"],
                          hover_name="location", 
                          hover_data=["total_cases"], 
                          color_continuous_scale="Portland",
                          radius=7, 
                          zoom=0,
                          height=700,
                          z="total_cases"
                          )
fig.update_layout(title=f'Country vs total_cases',
                  font=dict(family="Courier New, monospace",
                            size=18,
                            color="#7f7f7f")
                )
fig.update_layout(mapbox_style="open-street-map", mapbox_center_lon=0)

fig.show()

map1

Density map plot is useful and clear when we are ploting onto state or city because it will make our plot little bit visible. Here it is not clearly visible.

Density Mapbox with Slider


first_day = tldf.date.min()

scl = [[0.0, '#ffffff'],[0.2, '#b4a8ce'],[0.4, '#8573a9'],
       [0.6, '#7159a3'],[0.8, '#5732a1'],[1.0, '#2c0579']] # purples

data_slider = []
for date in tldf['date'].unique():
    df_segmented =  tldf[(tldf['date']== date)]

    for col in df_segmented.columns:
        df_segmented[col] = df_segmented[col].astype(str)

    data_each_yr = dict(
                        type='densitymapbox',
                        lat = df_segmented["lat"],
                        lon = df_segmented["lon"],
                        hoverinfo="text",
                        # name = "country",
                        text = df_segmented["country"],                        
                        z=df_segmented["total_cases"].astype(float),
                        colorbar= {'title':'Total Cases'}
                        )

    data_slider.append(data_each_yr)

steps = []
for i,date in enumerate(tldf.date.unique()):
    step = dict(method='restyle',
                args=['visible', [False] * len(data_slider)],
                label='Date {}'.format(date))
    step['args'][1][i] = True
    steps.append(step)

sliders = [dict(active=0, pad={"t": 1}, steps=steps)]

layout = dict(mapbox_style="open-street-map",
              title ='Total Cases at the End of Month Across the World',
              sliders=sliders)

fig = dict(data=data_slider, layout=layout)

iplot(fig)

map2

References

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